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  1. Schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder characterised by hallucinations, delusions, formal thought and movement disorders, behavioural changes and a lack of motivation. Symptoms are traditionally divided into positive and negative. The diagnosis is made clinically after a full psychiatric history and other causes of psychosis are excluded. The pathophysiology and causes of schizophrenia are multifaceted and extremely complex and there is no full understanding why it occurs. It has a relatively low prevalence affecting less than 1% of people in their lives.

    efaccena - 05/06/2023 - 9:46am

  2. Overview of types of receptors, their mechanisms of action and examples

    Main types of drug targets and their mechanisms of action

    Drug Target




    Channel-linked receptors

    media - 22/05/2014 - 12:09pm

  3. Insomnia

    Insomnia refers to a sleep disorder marked by persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or experiencing non-restorative sleep, despite adequate opportunity for sleep. It can be categorized as episodic, lasting up to three months, or persistent, lasting more than three months.

    Several neurotransmitters play essential roles in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. The neuronal systems in which neurotransmitters and neuropeptides act to control the sleep–wake cycle lie in the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, with connections in the thalamus and cortex.

    efaccena - 26/06/2023 - 9:45am

  4. Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)

    GAD is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and its symptoms and consequences put pressure on both general practice and emergency departments. It is generally defined as chronic, excessive worry lasting more than six months which is having a disruptive impact on a person’s life. GAD does not include anxiety that is part of another mental health disorder, a result of substance misuse or another health condition (e.g. hyperthyroidism). However, it often occurs in association with major depression.

    efaccena - 05/06/2023 - 11:35am

  5. Gastrointestinal peptides

    The gastrointestinal hormones constitute a group of hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine. This group of hormones regulate various functions of the digestive organs. Some of the major families are listed below.

    efaccena - 07/03/2016 - 2:08pm

  6. Neurotransmitters

    Synaptic transmission relies on local synthesis, and release of neurotransmitter molecules at the synapse, binding of the neurotransmitter to its cognate post-synaptic receptor(s) and inactivation/removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic space to terminate the activation.

    efaccena - 29/03/2016 - 1:09pm

  7. Ligand-gated ion channels

    Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediate passive ion flux driven by the electrochemical gradient for the permeant ions. LGICs are gated by the binding of a specific ligand to an orthosteric site(s) that triggers a conformational change that results in the conducting state, or by binding of endogenous, or exogenous, modulators to allosteric sites. LGICs are responsible for fast synaptic transmission in the nervous system and at the somatic neuromuscular junction.

    efaccena - 24/02/2016 - 3:56pm

  8. Mood stabilising drugs

    A variety of chemotypes are grouped together as the mood stabilising drugs, used in the management of bipolar disorder (manic depression), mania and hypomania, and sometimes recurrent severe depression. Naming these drugs as mood stabilisers belies their action of stabilising mood in patients who experience problems with extreme highs, extreme lows, or mood swings between extreme highs and lows.

    Mood stabilisers should only be prescribed by mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists.

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 7:56pm

  9. Toxicology

    Clinical toxicology focuses on the adverse effects of chemical substances on humans, and the treatments that are available once exposure to toxins (produced naturally by an organism) or toxicants (including man-made substances) has been diagnosed.

    This module offers concise summaries of commonly abused substances, their effects, and classifications.

    Each topic provides learners with foundational knowledge needed to make informed decisions and effectively contribute to addressing substance abuse challenges.

    The structure of the module includes the following:

    media - 23/05/2014 - 2:14pm

  10. Peptides

    Endogenous peptides and proteins include well characterized families of neuropeptide transmitters, neuropeptide modulators, hormones, and fragments of functional proteins, which are essential in many biological processes. The peptides exert potent biological actions in virtually all systems in the body (see figure for examples).


    media - 23/05/2014 - 10:23am