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  1. Venous thromboembolism

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a blood clot in a vein. VTEs can partially or completely obstruct blood flow. The most frequent types of VTE are

    • deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and
    • pulmonary embolism (PE)

    Pharmacological VTE prophylaxis and treatment relies on the use of different classes of drugs; anti-coagulants, antiplatelet drugs and thrombolytic/fibrinolytic agents.

    efaccena - 18/04/2023 - 2:18pm

  2. Population genetic effects on pharmacogenomic diversity: warfarin in a Brazilian cohort

    This slide set examines the impact of population admixture on global pharmacogenomic diversity, using data from the highly heterogeneous and admixed Brazilian population.  Results obtained with ancestry-informative markers are presented  and discussed in relation to the the tri-hybrid – Amerindian, European and African – biogeographical ancestry of Brazilians.  Links to  databases on the distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms among Brazilians are provided.  The challenges and opportunities  for pharmacogenomics research and clinical implementation  in  admixed populations are explore

    efaccena - 24/02/2016 - 3:08pm

  3. Anticoagulant drugs

    Anticoagulants are used to prevent the formation or growth of fibrin/erythrocyte thrombi in the venous circulation. They are not useful for treating arterial thrombi which are mainly composed of platelet aggregates.

    Anticoagulants can be administered parenterally or orally.

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 9:11am

  4. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS)

    Acute ischemic stroke is caused by thrombotic or embolic occlusion of a cerebral artery, which leads to a sudden loss of blood circulation to a focal area of the brain. This results in a corresponding loss of neurologic function. The text that follows has been summarized and adapted from a transcript written by Amanda Dippold as part of her clinical pharmacology training.

    efaccena - 14/08/2018 - 10:32am

  5. Arrhythmias

    The normal heart beats regularly at 60–100 beats per min (bpm), which is controlled by the sinoatrial (SA) node located in the right atrium. Tachycardia describes a heart that beats more rapidly (>100 bpm). Bradycardia describes a situation where the heart beats more slowly (<60 bpm). Electrical signals generated in the SA node travel through a conduction pathway in the wall of the atria (causing atrial contraction) before reaching and depolarising the AV node.

    efaccena - 15/03/2022 - 12:40pm

  6. Therapeutic index

    When drugs are used in clinical practice, the prescriber is unable to construct a careful dose–response curve for each individual patient. Therefore, most drugs are licensed for use within a recommended dose range that is expected to be close to the top of the dose–response curve for most patients. This ensures that most patients will achieve a good clinical response without the need for frequent review and dose increases. However, this means that it is sometimes possible to achieve the desired therapeutic response at doses towards the lower end of the recommended range (or below).

    efaccena - 20/11/2015 - 11:43am

  7. Drug metabolizing enzymes

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are the main drug metabolising enzymes (xenobiotic inactivators) in humans, and these are the primary contributors to Phase I oxidative metabolism of drugs and other chemicals.

    efaccena - 08/03/2016 - 9:21am

  8. NSAIDs (inflammation)

    NSAIDs have historically been classified according to their chemical composition, but as mechanism of action has come to the fore, this is also used to classify these drugs.

    NSAIDs within classes have similar characteristics and tolerability, with little difference in clinical efficacy at equivalent doses. The prescribers’ choice will be determined by other factors such as dosing regimens, route of administration and tolerability. For example, ibuprofen and diclofenac have half-lives of just 2–3 hours, whereas the oxicams have half-lives 10 times longer.

    efaccena - 09/09/2016 - 9:27am

  9. Therapy optimization

    Patients with a given disease may differ dramatically in the desired and undesired effects of one and the same standard drug therapy. Extreme examples are:

    efaccena - 24/03/2016 - 9:43am