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  1. Antihyperglycemics (2)- injectable

    Currently there are 3 recognized classes of injectable antihyperglycemics.


    efaccena - 14/01/2019 - 10:47am

  2. Antihyperglycemics (1)- oral

    Antihyperglycemic medications are used for glycemic control. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels in patients with hyperglycemia is important for minimizing the risk of acute symptoms, long-term complications, and mortality. There are many physiological causes of hyperglycemia, so multi-drug regimens may be required to control blood glucose levels.

    Currently, there are 7 classes of oral antihyperglycemics.

    efaccena - 14/01/2019 - 10:42am

  3. Endocrine peptides

    Endocrine peptides are the proteinaceous subset of the hormones produced by the glands of the endocrine system. The major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract and adrenal glands. Endocrine hormones regulate a vast array of bodily functions including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

    efaccena - 07/03/2016 - 2:09pm

  4. Peptides

    Endogenous peptides and proteins include well characterized families of neuropeptide transmitters, neuropeptide modulators, hormones, and fragments of functional proteins, which are essential in many biological processes. The peptides exert potent biological actions in virtually all systems in the body (see figure for examples).


    media - 23/05/2014 - 10:23am

  5. Gastrointestinal peptides

    The gastrointestinal hormones constitute a group of hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine. This group of hormones regulate various functions of the digestive organs. Some of the major families are listed below.

    efaccena - 07/03/2016 - 2:08pm

  6. A nuclear receptor: Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR)

    Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), also known as NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4), is the nuclear receptor for bile acids (BAs), its endogenous ligands (from which the initial name “BAR” - bile acid receptor).

    efaccena - 30/10/2023 - 2:53pm

  7. Overview of gastrointestinal peptides in health and disease

    A regularly updated and peer reviewed webpage summarising the role of GI peptides in health and disease, with links to additional webpages covering other relevant topics, e.g. physiology of gastrin, ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, and neuropeptide Y, insulin action and physiology of somatostatin and its analogues.

    efaccena - 17/03/2016 - 11:48am

  8. Therapeutic index

    When drugs are used in clinical practice, the prescriber is unable to construct a careful dose–response curve for each individual patient. Therefore, most drugs are licensed for use within a recommended dose range that is expected to be close to the top of the dose–response curve for most patients. This ensures that most patients will achieve a good clinical response without the need for frequent review and dose increases. However, this means that it is sometimes possible to achieve the desired therapeutic response at doses towards the lower end of the recommended range (or below).

    efaccena - 20/11/2015 - 11:43am

  9. Lipid-lowering drugs

    There are several classes of established lipid-lowering, or antihyperlipidemic drugs available to the prescriber.

    The choice of which agent to use depends greatly on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular, liver and kidney function.

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 9:16am

  10. Overview of types of receptors, their mechanisms of action and examples

    Main types of drug targets and their mechanisms of action

    Drug Target




    Channel-linked receptors

    media - 22/05/2014 - 12:09pm