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  1. Angiotensin receptor antagonists

    Angiotensin receptor antagonists are used to treat hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and congestive heart failure. As a group these drugs are termed 'sartans', and this forms the stem of their non-proprietary names.

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 9:07am

  2. Diuretics

    Diuretics are particularly useful in treating the water and salt retention caused by heart failure.

    Common side effects like muscle cramps arise from the loss of too much sodium, potassium or magnesium. Prescribers should be aware of the risk of diuretic-induced hypokalaemia.

    There are three main types of diuretic, each of which works by affecting a different part of the kidneys:

    Loop diuretics- prescribed for fluid retention (oedema), particularly in the lungs. These drugs are very fast acting, but of short duration and induce dramatic water loss.

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 9:03am

  3. Hypertension

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the product of increased cardiac output (CO) and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR). Increased CO may result from increased fluid volume from excess sodium intake or renal sodium retention, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), or activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Functional constriction or structural hypertrophy of the vasculature increases PVR. Both result from excess stimulation of the RAAS, SNS overactivity, genetic alterations of cell membranes, or endothelial-derived factors.

    efaccena - 06/05/2019 - 1:49pm

  4. Heart failure

    Heart failure (HF) is caused by the heart’s inability to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. In response, the body activates compensatory mechanisms, such as the sympathetic nervous system which leads to tachycardia, sodium and water retention, vasoconstriction, and over time, ventricular hypertrophy, all geared towards increasing cardiac output. Leading causes of HF are coronary artery disease and hypertension.

    efaccena - 11/03/2019 - 11:56am