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  1. Overview of types of receptors, their mechanisms of action and examples

    Main types of drug targets and their mechanisms of action

    Drug Target




    Channel-linked receptors

    media - 22/05/2014 - 12:09pm

  2. Gastrointestinal peptides

    The gastrointestinal hormones constitute a group of hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine. This group of hormones regulate various functions of the digestive organs. Some of the major families are listed below.

    efaccena - 07/03/2016 - 2:08pm

  3. Neurotransmitters

    Synaptic transmission relies on local synthesis, and release of neurotransmitter molecules at the synapse, binding of the neurotransmitter to its cognate post-synaptic receptor(s) and inactivation/removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic space to terminate the activation.

    efaccena - 29/03/2016 - 1:09pm

  4. Ligand-gated ion channels

    Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediate passive ion flux driven by the electrochemical gradient for the permeant ions. LGICs are gated by the binding of a specific ligand to an orthosteric site(s) that triggers a conformational change that results in the conducting state, or by binding of endogenous, or exogenous, modulators to allosteric sites. LGICs are responsible for fast synaptic transmission in the nervous system and at the somatic neuromuscular junction.

    efaccena - 24/02/2016 - 3:56pm

  5. Mood stabilising drugs

    A variety of chemotypes are grouped together as the mood stabilising drugs, used in the management of bipolar disorder (manic depression), mania and hypomania, and sometimes recurrent severe depression. Naming these drugs as mood stabilisers belies their action of stabilising mood in patients who experience problems with extreme highs, extreme lows, or mood swings between extreme highs and lows.

    Mood stabilisers should only be prescribed by mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists.

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 7:56pm

  6. Peptides

    Endogenous peptides and proteins include well characterized families of neuropeptide transmitters, neuropeptide modulators, hormones, and fragments of functional proteins, which are essential in many biological processes. The peptides exert potent biological actions in virtually all systems in the body (see figure for examples).


    media - 23/05/2014 - 10:23am

  7. Opioid misuse

    Opioid drugs (e.g. morphine) are derived from a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. 

    smaxwell - 21/06/2016 - 10:55am

  8. drug

    A drug is a medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when introduced into the body; a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease or as a component of a medication.

    jsharman - 25/09/2014 - 10:27am

  9. Other excretion

    Excretion with the bile (and thereby with feces), sweat, exhaled air, saliva, and breast milk play a much smaller role compared to urine. An exception is the excretion of volatile anesthetics with exhaled air. The particular importance of the excretion via breast milk lies in the toxic effects of some drugs on the breastfeeding infant. Note that substance-specific portions of orally administered drugs are removed with feces without entering the circulation. This is due to their incomplete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

    efaccena - 21/03/2016 - 11:47am

  10. xenobiotic

    A xenobiotic is any foreign chemical substance found in an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present in that organism. Drugs are xenobiotics, as are environmental pollutants, food additives, carcinogens and pesticides.

    efaccena - 15/03/2016 - 3:06pm