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  1. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) and other simple analgesics

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is not classed as an NSAID because it lacks anti-inflammatory activity and only weakly inhibits COX isoenzymes. The analgesic effect of paracetamol may involve its metabolites (e.g. N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine, which is also responsible for hepatotoxicity in overdosage).

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 7:51pm

  2. Opioid analgesics

    Many opiod analgesics are available to the prescriber.

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 7:51pm

  3. NSAIDs - an introduction

    This 20-slide slide set created with PowerPoint describes prostanoid synthesis and their effects on the body; mechanisms of action, beneficial and adverse effects of NSAIDS; the difference between the effects of low and high dose aspirin; and the effects and toxicity of paracetamol (acetaminophen). This is an introduction to the topic of NSAIDS which would be appropriate for beginners. Contributed by Christopher Fowler, Umeå University, Sweden.

    efaccena - 17/01/2018 - 11:20am

  4. Drugs for hyperthyroidism

    Thioamides, such as carbimazole and propylthiouracil, inhibit thyroid peroxidase and interfere with the formation of thyroid hormones. Carbimazole is a prodrug metabolised to the active metabolite thiamazole (also known as methimazole).

    efaccena - 02/12/2022 - 12:07pm

  5. Adverse drug reactions - basic principles

    Any drug that is capable of producing beneficial therapeutic effects can also cause unwanted ‘adverse’ effects. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are therefore common and constitute an important public health challenge in their own right. A significant proportion of admissions to hospital are caused by ADRs and hospitalised patients frequently experience ADRs that complicate and prolong their stay.

    smaxwell - 13/10/2014 - 8:02pm

  6. Other autacoids

    The pharmacology and clinical impact of histamine and serotonin have been described above. This section will focus on other clinically important autacoid molecules.

    Autacoids release can be triggered by agents including chemical and immune irritants, UV light, bacterial toxins and physical trauma.

    Whilst histamine mediates the wheal, flare and redness reactions, the prostaglandins mediate pain.

    efaccena - 29/03/2016 - 1:12pm

  7. NSAIDs for musculoskeletal conditions

    There are about 20 different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) available. Some, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, are widely available over-the-counter (OTC). Others are only available on prescription. NSAIDs are the most frequently used medicines for symptomatic relief in osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, and are often prescribed to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

    efaccena - 22/07/2016 - 8:25am

  8. Migraine

    Migraine is a complex condition, but it is characterised as a moderate to severe, pulsating headache that is typically unilateral, and is often accompanied by nausea and disturbed vision (aura). Migraines can last from two hours to several days. Associated symptoms can include nausea and vomiting, as well as sensitivities to light, sound or smell.

    Medical intervention is indicated when the migraines become frequent and/or are severe.

    efaccena - 22/05/2018 - 11:51am

  9. Drug metabolizing enzymes

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are the main drug metabolising enzymes (xenobiotic inactivators) in humans, and these are the primary contributors to Phase I oxidative metabolism of drugs and other chemicals.

    efaccena - 08/03/2016 - 9:21am