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  1. Anti-arrhythmic drugs

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.

    Class I antiarrhythmics interfere with sodium channel function, and are subdivided by the effect they have on the action potential (AP)- see figure below

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 9:04am

  2. Local anaesthetics

    Local anaesthetics (LAs) are applied to block nociception (pain perception) that is transmitted via peripheral Aδ and C nerve fibres to the brain. Chemically, LAs are amphiphilic molecules with a hydrophobic aromatic group and a basic amine group. They are weak bases that act in their ionised form, but which can only diffuse across the cell membrane to their site of action (at the intracellular face of voltage-gated sodium channels) in their un-ionised form.

    efaccena - 11/03/2019 - 12:46pm

  3. Arrhythmias

    The normal heart beats regularly at 60–100 beats per min (bpm), which is controlled by the sinoatrial (SA) node located in the right atrium. Tachycardia describes a heart that beats more rapidly (>100 bpm). Bradycardia describes a situation where the heart beats more slowly (<60 bpm). Electrical signals generated in the SA node travel through a conduction pathway in the wall of the atria (causing atrial contraction) before reaching and depolarising the AV node.

    efaccena - 15/03/2022 - 12:40pm

  4. Voltage-gated ion channels

    Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) are responsive to changes in the local electrical membrane potential, and are critical for the function of excitable cells, such as neurons and muscle cells. VGICs are ion-selective, with separate channels identified for each of the major physiological ions- Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-. Each type of channel is a multimeric complex of subunits encoded by a number of genes. Subunit combinations vary in different tissues, with each combination having distinctive voltage dependence and cellular localization.

    efaccena - 24/02/2016 - 3:26pm

  5. Overview of types of receptors, their mechanisms of action and examples

    Main types of drug targets and their mechanisms of action

    Drug Target




    Channel-linked receptors

    media - 22/05/2014 - 12:09pm