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  1. Heart failure

    Heart failure (HF) is caused by the heart’s inability to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. In response, the body activates compensatory mechanisms, such as the sympathetic nervous system which leads to tachycardia, sodium and water retention, vasoconstriction, and over time, ventricular hypertrophy, all geared towards increasing cardiac output. Leading causes of HF are coronary artery disease and hypertension.

    efaccena - 11/03/2019 - 11:56am

  2. Angiotensin receptor antagonists

    Angiotensin receptor antagonists are used to treat hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and congestive heart failure. As a group these drugs are termed 'sartans', and this forms the stem of their non-proprietary names.

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 9:07am

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

    Angiotensin II (ATII) is a highly potent endogenous vasoconstrictor. It is formed from angiotensin I in the blood by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).

    smaxwell - 10/10/2014 - 9:06am

  4. Cardiovascular peptides

    Many vasoactive peptides are implicated in vascular (patho)biology.

    efaccena - 07/03/2016 - 2:07pm

  5. Hypertension

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the product of increased cardiac output (CO) and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR). Increased CO may result from increased fluid volume from excess sodium intake or renal sodium retention, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), or activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Functional constriction or structural hypertrophy of the vasculature increases PVR. Both result from excess stimulation of the RAAS, SNS overactivity, genetic alterations of cell membranes, or endothelial-derived factors.

    efaccena - 06/05/2019 - 1:49pm

  6. Peptides

    Endogenous peptides and proteins include well characterized families of neuropeptide transmitters, neuropeptide modulators, hormones, and fragments of functional proteins, which are essential in many biological processes. The peptides exert potent biological actions in virtually all systems in the body (see figure for examples).


    media - 23/05/2014 - 10:23am

  7. Renal system

    The most important physiological functions of the kidney include (i) regulating extracellular fluid volume, (ii) maintaining the concentration of electrolytes (e.g. Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), (iii) regulating acid-base balance, (iv) excreting waste products (e.g.

    media - 23/05/2014 - 11:09am

  8. Neurotransmitters

    Synaptic transmission relies on local synthesis, and release of neurotransmitter molecules at the synapse, binding of the neurotransmitter to its cognate post-synaptic receptor(s) and inactivation/removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic space to terminate the activation.

    efaccena - 29/03/2016 - 1:09pm